Model Penal Code:

Sentencing

This project revisits the sentencing provisions of the Model Penal Code in light of the many changes in sentencing philosophy and practice that have taken place in the more than 50 years since the Code was first developed.
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This project may appear on the 2017 Annual Meeting agenda, potentially completing this project. View the project’s proposed final Table of Contents.

For an in-depth look at the history of this project, please visit the Sentencing page of The ALI Adviser.

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On October 23, 2009, the ALI Council voted overwhelmingly, with some abstentions, to accept the resolution of the capital punishment matter as approved by the Institute’s membership at the 2009 Annual Meeting. The resolution adopted at the Annual Meeting and now accepted by the Council reads as follows: “For reasons stated in Part V of the Council’s report to the membership, the Institute withdraws Section 210.6 of the Model Penal Code in light of the current intractable institutional and structural obstacles to ensuring a minimally adequate system for administering capital punishment.”

Having achieved the consensus of the membership at the Annual Meeting and now of the Council, this resolution is the official position of the Institute. Efforts will be made to communicate this position wherever the Model Penal Code is published or otherwise available and to the public generally.

Reporter
Kevin R. Reitz University of Minnesota Law School
Minneapolis, MN
Associate Reporter
Cecelia M. Klingele University of Wisconsin Law School
Madison, WI
Advisers
Andrew Ashworth All Souls College, Oxford University
Oxford, England
Alfred Blumstein Carnegie Mellon University, Heinz College
Pittsburgh, PA
David Boerner Seattle University School of Law
Seattle, WA
Ronald P. Corbett, Jr. Boston, MA
John Coleman Creuzot The Creuzot Law Firm
Dallas, TX
Margaret Ellen Curran Providence, RI, USA
Beverly Winslow Cutler Alaska Superior Court, Third Judicial District
Palmer, AK
Richard S. Frase University of Minnesota Law School
Minneapolis, MN
Paul L. Friedman U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia
Washington, DC
Nancy Gertner Harvard Law School
Cambridge, MA
Ricardo H. Hinojosa U.S. District Court, Southern District of Texas
McAllen, TX
Robert M. A. Johnson Anoka, MN
Joette Katz Connecticut State Department of Children and Families
Hartford, CT
Kay A. Knapp Minneapolis, MN, USA
Michael J. Kramer Noble Superior Court
Albion, IN
Miriam A. Krinsky Los Angeles Sheriff's Department
Los Angeles, CA
William J. Leahy Office of Indigent Legal Services
Albany, NY
Benjamin Lerner City of Philadelphia, Office of the Managing Director
Philadelphia, PA
Denise Posse Lindberg Utah District Court, Third Judicial District
Draper, UT
Margaret Colgate Love Law Office of Margaret Love
Washington, DC
Gerard E. Lynch U.S. Court of Appeals, Second Circuit
New York, NY
Theodore A. McKee U.S. Court of Appeals, Third Circuit
Philadelphia, PA
Benjamin C. McMurray Utah Federal Defender Office
Salt Lake City, UT
Stuart Rabner Supreme Court of New Jersey
Trenton, NJ
Jed S. Rakoff U.S. District Court, Southern District of New York
New York, NY
Curtis R. Reitz University of Pennsylvania Law School
Philadelphia, PA
Edward E. Rhine Ohio State University
Columbus, OH
Julian Roberts Oxford University School of Law
Oxford, England
Thomas Warren Ross The University of North Carolina
Chapel Hill, NC
Paul Shechtman Bracewell LLP
New York, NY
Virginia E. Sloan The Constitution Project
Washington, DC
Kate Stith Yale Law School
New Haven, CT
Carolyn Engel Temin Philadelphia, PA, USA
Sandra Guerra Thompson University of Houston Law Center
Houston, TX
Patricia M. Wald Washington, DC, USA
Richard B. Walker Kansas District Court, Ninth Judicial District
Newton, KS
Michael A. Wolff St. Louis University School of Law
Saint Louis, MO
Liaison
Steven L. Chanenson Villanova University School of Law
Villanova, PA
Inimai M. Chettiar Brennan Center for Justice at NYU School of Law
New York, NY
Kara Dansky One Thousand Arms
New York, NY
James E. Felman Kynes, Markman & Felman, PA
Tampa, FL
Peter Goldberger National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers (NACDL)
Ardmore, PA
Harvey J. Sepler Hollywood, FL
Laura C. Tharney New Jersey Law Revision Commission
Newark, NJ
Members Consultative Group
Charles W. Adams University of Tulsa College of Law
Tulsa, OK
Mark David Agrast American Society of International Law
Washington, DC
Elizabeth K. Ainslie Schnader Harrison Segal & Lewis LLP
Philadelphia, PA
Elizabeth Alexander Law Offices of Elizabeth Alexander
Washington, DC
Peter C. Alexander Carbondale, IL
Ronald J. Allen Northwestern University School of Law
Chicago, IL
Robert H. Alsdorf Alsdorf Dispute Resolution
Seattle, WA, USA
Diane Marie Amann University of Georgia School of Law
Athens, GA
José F. Anderson University of Baltimore School of Law
Baltimore, MD
Richard T. Andrias Supreme Court of New York, Appellate Division, First Dept.
New York, NY
Nancy F. Atlas U.S. District Court, Southern District of Texas
Houston, TX
Melissa Aubin U.S. District Court
Eugene, OR
Thomas Edgar Baker Houston, TX, USA
Joseph R. Bankoff Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA
Rachel E. Barkow New York University School of Law
New York, NY
Jürgen Basedow Max- Planck Institute for Comparative and International Private Law
Hamburg, Germany
Michael M. Baylson U.S. District Court, Eastern District of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA
Sara Sun Beale Duke University School of Law
Durham, NC
Robert O. Berger Lexington, MA, USA
Judith Mitchell Billings Utah Court of Appeals
Salt Lake City, UT
Richard C. Bosson Supreme Court of New Mexico
Santa Fe, NM
Margot Botsford Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts
Boston, MA
Steven M. Bradford HNI Corporation
Muscatine, IA
Dennis J. Braithwaite Rutgers Law School
Camden, NJ
David A. Brennen University of Kentucky College of Law
Lexington, KY
Steven A. Brick JAMS
San Francisco, CA
Samuel W. Buell Duke University School of Law
Durham, NC
Jean-Jacques Cabou Perkins Coie LLP
Phoenix, AZ
Elena A. Cappella Philadelphia, PA, USA
Catherine L. Carpenter Southwestern Law School
Los Angeles, CA
Catherine C. Carr University of Pennsylvania Law School
Philadelphia, PA
William B. Carr, Jr. Washington, DC
Peter H. Carson Sheppard, Mullin, Richter & Hampton LLP
San Francisco, CA
R. Michael Cassidy Boston College Law School
Newton Center, MA
Henry L. Chambers, Jr. University of Richmond, T.C. Williams School of Law
Richmond, VA
Gabriel J. Chin University of California, Davis School of Law
Davis, CA
Dane S. Ciolino Loyola University, New Orleans School of Law
New Orleans, LA
Roger S. Clark Rutgers Law School
Camden, NJ
Neil Howard Cogan Whittier Law School
Costa Mesa, CA
Neil P. Cohen San Rafael, CA, USA
Lovida H. Coleman, Jr. Mc Lean, VA, USA
William S. Cooper Supreme Court of Kentucky
Elizabethtown, KY
John C. Cratsley JAMS
Boston, MA
James B. Craven, III Craven Law Firm
Durham, NC
Dennis E. Curtis Yale Law School
New Haven, CT
Mariano-Florentino Cuéllar Supreme Court of California
San Francisco, CA
George A. Davidson Hughes Hubbard & Reed LLP
New York, NY
Jack Davies Minneapolis, MN, USA
David A. Demers Florida Circuit Court, Sixth Judicial Circuit
Saint Petersburg, FL
Deborah W. Denno Fordham University School of Law
New York, NY
John L. Diamond University of California, Hastings College of the Law
San Francisco, CA
Paul Steven Diamond U.S. District Court, Eastern District of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA
Brent E. Dickson Supreme Court of Indiana
Indianapolis, IN
Gordon L. Doerfer JAMS
Boston, MA
William C. Donnino New York State Supreme Court
Mineola, NY
Tobias A. Dorsey U.S. Sentencing Commission
Washington, DC
William F. Downes JAMS
Denver, CO
Michael R. Dreeben U.S. Department of Justice
Washington, DC
Joshua Dressler Ohio State University, Moritz College of Law
Columbus, OH
Jean Nicolas Druey University of St. Gallen
St. Gallen, Switzerland
Guy Du Pont Davis Ward Phillips & Vineberg LLP
Montreal, Canada
David F. DuMouchel Butzel Long
Detroit, MI
Meredith J. Duncan University of Houston Law Center
Houston, TX
Christine M. Durham Utah Supreme Court
Salt Lake City, UT
Warren W. Eginton U.S. District Court
Bridgeport, CT
Ilana H. Eisenstein U.S. Department of Justice
Washington, DC
David N. Ellenhorn Office of Attorney General Eric Schneiderman
New York, NY
Sheldon H. Elsen JAMS
New York, NY
Anne S. Emanuel Georgia State University College of Law
Atlanta, GA
JoAnne A. Epps Temple University Beasley School of Law
Philadelphia, PA
Anthony C. Epstein Superior Court of the District of Columbia
Washington, DC
Norman L. Epstein California Court of Appeal, 2nd Appellate District, Division Four
Los Angeles, CA
Roger A. Fairfax, Jr. George Washington University Law School
Washington, DC
Mary Fan University of Washington School of Law
Seattle, WA
Nita A. Farahany Duke University School of Law
Durham, NC
Ira M. Feinberg Hogan Lovells US LLP
New York, NY
James E. Felman Kynes, Markman & Felman, PA
Tampa, FL
David Foscue Montesano, WA
Eric M. Freedman Hofstra University School of Law
Hempstead, NY
Samuel S. Freedman Superior Court of Connecticut
Stamford, CT
Steven I. Friedland Elon University School of Law
Greensboro, NC
W. Royal Furgeson, Jr. UNT Dallas College of Law
Dallas, TX
Jesse M. Furman U.S. District Court, Southern District of New York
New York, NY
Alfredo P. Garcia St. Thomas University School of Law
Miami Gardens, FL
Anne Gardner Texas Second Court of Appeals
Fort Worth, TX
E. Susan Garsh Superior Court of Massachusetts
Boston, MA
Henry L. Garza Bell County District Attorney's Office
Belton, TX
Faith E. Gay Quinn Emanuel Urquhart & Sullivan, LLP
New York, NY
John Gleeson Debevoise & Plimpton LLP
New York, NY
Mitchell S. Goldberg U.S. District Court, Eastern District of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA
Yvonne Gonzalez Rogers U.S. District Court, Northern District of California
Oakland, CA
Hervé Gouraige Sills Cummis & Gross P.C.
Newark, NJ
Jane Cutler Greenspan Supreme Court of Pennsylvania (Retired)
Philadelphia, PA, USA
Michael Greenwald Philadelphia, PA, USA
Charles E. Griffin Butler Snow LLP
Ridgeland, MS
John J. Grogan Langer Grogan & Diver, P.C.
Philadelphia, PA
David A. Hardy Second Judicial Court, Washoe County
Reno, NV
Zachary J. Harmon King & Spalding LLP
Washington, DC
Nathan L. Hecht Supreme Court of Texas
Austin, TX
Lawrence K. Hellman Oklahoma City University School of Law
Oklahoma City, OK
Virginia Ellen Hench University of Hawaii-Manoa, William S. Richardson School of Law
Honolulu, HI
Peter J. Henning Wayne State University Law School
Detroit, MI
Ronald K. Henry Kaye Scholer LLP
Washington, DC
Eric B. Henson U.S. Attorney Office
Philadelphia, PA
Donald H. J. Hermann DePaul University College of Law
Chicago, IL
Randy Hertz New York University School of Law
New York, NY
Barbara Parker Hervey Texas Court of Criminal Appeals
Austin, TX
Tracy D. Hester University of Houston Law Center
Houston, TX
Ernest R. Higginbotham UNT Dallas College of Law
Dallas, TX
Kenneth L. Hirsch Laguna Woods, CA
Lonny Hoffman University of Houston Law Center
Houston, TX
Mark R. Hornak U.S. District Court, Western District of Pennsylvania
Pittsburgh, PA
Andrew M. Horton Maine Superior Court
Portland, ME
Beryl A. Howell U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia
Washington, DC
Edwin E. Huddleson Washington, DC
Keith N. Hylton Boston University School of Law
Boston, MA
Joan K. Irion California Court of Appeal, Fourth Appellate District, Division One
San Diego, CA
Ketanji Brown Jackson U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia
Washington, DC
Ralph A. Jacobs Jacobs Kivitz & Drake LLC
Philadelphia, PA
Laurence M. Johnson Davis, Malm & D'Agostine
Boston, MA
Liza Ilona Karsai Uniform Law Commission
Chicago, IL
Kathryn M. Kase Texas Defender Service
Houston, TX
Michael Edward Keasler Texas Court of Criminal Appeals
Austin, TX
Michael J. Keating Emerson Electric Co.
Saint Louis, MO
Cynthia S. Kent Attorney at Law
Tyler, TX
Janine Marie Kern Supreme Court of South Dakota
Pierre, SD
Mark R. Killenbeck University of Arkansas-Fayetteville, Leflar Law Center
Fayetteville, AR
Nancy J. King Vanderbilt University Law School
Nashville, TN
Rufus G. King, III Superior Court of the District of Columbia
Washington, DC
Laird C. Kirkpatrick George Washington University Law School
Washington, DC
Kenneth F. Kirwin Mitchell Hamline School of Law
Saint Paul, MN
Susan R. Klein University of Texas School of Law
Austin, TX
John G. Koeltl U.S. District Court, Southern District of New York
New York, NY
Jack M. Kress Albany Medical College
Rockville, MD
Daniel J. Krisch Halloran & Sage
Hartford, CT
Larry Kupers U.S. Department of Justice
Washington, DC
Iris Lan U.S. Department of Justice
Washington, DC
Sybil H. Landau New York, NY, USA
Howard Langer Langer Grogan & Diver, P.C.
Philadelphia, PA
Cynthia K. Lee George Washington University Law School
Washington, DC
Evan Tsen Lee University of California, Hastings College of the Law
San Francisco, CA
Stephen E. Lee Jennings, Strouss & Salmon, PLC
Phoenix, AZ
George W. Liebmann Liebmann & Shively, P.A.
Baltimore, MD
Just. Allen M. Linden Toronto, Canada
Wayne A. Logan Florida State University College of Law
Tallahassee, FL
Erik Luna Arizona State University College of Law
Tempe, AZ
María Pabón López Loyola University, New Orleans School of Law
New Orleans, LA
William Cullen MacDonald Hawkins, Delafield & Wood LLP
New York, NY
Petra Jimenez Maes Supreme Court of New Mexico
Santa Fe, NM
Linda A. Malone College of William & Mary School of Law
Williamsburg, VA
C. Scott Maravilla U.S. Federal Aviation Administration
Washington, DC
Michael H. Marcus Oregon Circuit Court, Multnomah County
Portland, OR
Elizabeth Phillips Marsh Quinnipiac University School of Law
Hamden, CT
David Charles Mason Missouri Circuit Court, 22nd Judicial Circuit
Saint Louis, MO
Melissa H. Maxman Cohen & Gresser LLP
Washington, DC
David McCord Drake University Law School
Des Moines, IA
Robert Lee McCurley Alabama Law Institute
Tuscaloosa, AL
Margaret D. McGaughey U.S. Attorney's Office
Portland, ME
Mary A. McLaughlin U.S. District Court
Philadelphia, PA
Beverly McQueary Smith Touro College Jacob D. Fuchsberg Law Center
Central Islip, NY
Richard J. Medalie Hull, MA, USA
James A. Medford Smith Moore Leatherwood LLP
Greensboro, NC
M. Isabel Medina Loyola University, New Orleans School of Law
New Orleans, LA
Donald M. Middlebrooks U.S. District Court, Southern Dist of Florida
West Palm Beach, FL
Michael A. Middleton University of Missouri-Columbia School of Law
Columbia, MO
Judith A. Miller Chevy Chase, MD, USA
Marc L. Miller University of Arizona, James E. Rogers College of Law
Tucson, AZ
Natasha Minsker ACLU of California, Center for Advocacy & Policy
Sacramento, CA
Paul Mogin Williams & Connolly LLP
Washington, DC
Jennifer M. Moore Office of the Counsel to the Governor
Albany, NY
J. Dean Morgan Seattle, WA
Alan B. Morrison George Washington University Law School
Washington, DC
H. Geoffrey Moulton Superior Court of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA
Kimberly J. Mueller U.S. District Court, Eastern District of California
Sacramento, CA
Richard L. Neumeier Morrison Mahoney LLP
Boston, MA
Kevin C. Newsom Bradley Arant Boult Cummings LLP
Birmingham, AL
John B. Oakley University of California, Davis School of Law
Davis, CA
Stephen M. Orlofsky Blank Rome LLP
Princeton, NJ
Sir Geoffrey Palmer Harbour Chambers
Wellington, New Zealand
Mark D. Parker Parker, Heitz & Cosgrove
Billings, MT
John T. Parry Lewis & Clark Law School
Portland, OR
Jan P. Patterson Baylor Law School
Waco, TX
David E. Patton Federal Defenders of New York
New York, NY
Mary Margaret Penrose Texas A&M University School of Law
Fort Worth, TX
LeRoy Pernell Florida A & M University College of Law
Orlando, FL
Jack Pirozzolo Sidley Austin LLP
Boston, MA
Ellen S. Podgor Stetson University College of Law
Gulfport, FL
Josephine R. Potuto University of Nebraska College of Law
Lincoln, NE
Ellen S. Pryor UNT Dallas College of Law
Dallas, TX
William H. Pryor, Jr. U.S. Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit
Birmingham, AL
Gerald S. Reamey St. Mary's University School of Law
San Antonio, TX
Bernard D. Reams, Jr. St. Mary's University School of Law
San Antonio, TX
Henry R. Reeve Denver District Attorney's Office
Denver, CO
Judith Resnik Yale Law School
New Haven, CT
John H. Rich III U.S. District Court
Portland, ME
Daniel C. Richman Columbia Law School
New York, NY
Robert J. Ridge Clark Hill PLC
Pittsburgh, PA
Henry duPont Ridgely DLA Piper LLP
Wilmington, DE
Ira P. Robbins American University, Washington College of Law
Washington, DC
James L. Robertson Wise Carter Child & Caraway, P.A.
Jackson, MS
Sir Bruce Robertson Wellington, New Zealand
Margaret Casey Rodgers U.S. District Court, Northern District of Florida
Pensacola, FL
Ronald S. Rolfe Cravath, Swaine & Moore LLP
New York, NY
Jonathan C. Rose Jones Day
Washington, DC
Robin S. Rosenbaum U.S. District Court, Southern District of Florida
Fort Lauderdale, FL
Arnold R. Rosenfeld Sarrouf Law LLP
Boston, MA
Mark B. Rotenberg WilmerHale
Washington, DC
Michael D. Rubenstein Liskow & Lewis
Houston, TX
Joseph P. Russoniello Browne George Ross LLP
San Francisco, CA
Leila Nadya Sadat Washington University School of Law
Saint Louis, MO
Jon M. Sands District of Arizona
Phoenix, AZ
Patti B. Saris U.S. District Court, District of Massachusetts
Boston, MA
Felicia Sarner Federal Defender's Association, Trial Unit
Philadelphia, PA
James E. Scarboro Arnold & Porter LLP
Denver, CO
Elliot H. Scherker Greenberg Traurig LLP
Miami, FL
David A. Schlueter St. Mary's University School of Law
San Antonio, TX
Mary M. Schroeder U.S. Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit
Phoenix, AZ
David Schuman University of Oregon Law School
Eugene, OR
Alan R. Schwartz Florida Court of Appeal, Third District
Miami, FL
Samuel W. Seymour Sullivan & Cromwell LLP
New York, NY
Eric A. Shumsky Orrick, Herrington & Sutcliffe LLP
Washington, DC
Kami Chavis Simmons Wake Forest University School of Law
Winston Salem, NC
Kenneth W. Simons University of California, Irvine School of Law
Irvine, CA
Virginia E. Sloan The Constitution Project
Washington, DC
Robert D. Sloane Boston University School of Law
Boston, MA
George Prescott Slover Consumers Union
Washington, DC
Frederic N. Smalkin University of Baltimore School of Law
Baltimore, MD
D. Brooks Smith U.S. Court of Appeals, Third Circuit
Duncansville, PA
Douglas G. Smith Kirkland & Ellis LLP
Chicago, IL
Steven R. Smith California Western School of Law
San Diego, CA
Margaret Poles Spencer Circuit Court of City of Richmond
Richmond, VA
Arthur B. Spitzer American Civil Liberties Union of the National Capital Area
Washington, DC
Edwin H. Stern Gibbons P.C.
Newark, NJ
Jeffrey S. Sutton U.S. Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit
Columbus, OH
Viola J. Taliaferro Bloomington, IN, USA
Michele Taruffo Universita Di Pavia, Facolta Di Giurisprudenza
Pavia, Italy
Elizabeth G. Taylor National Health Law Program
Washington, DC
William H. Theis Federal Defender Program
Chicago, IL
Cindy G. Thyer Second Judicial District of Arkansas
Paragould, AR
Jon S. Tigar U.S. District Court, Northern District of California
San Francisco, CA
H. Woodruff Turner K&L Gates LLP
Pittsburgh, PA
Stanley A. Twardy, Jr. Day Pitney LLP
Stamford, CT
Gary A. Udashen Sorrels, Udashen & Anton, PC
Dallas, TX
Victor D. Vital Barnes & Thornburg, LLP
Dallas, TX
Michael Vitiello University of the Pacific, McGeorge School of Law
Sacramento, CA
Ronald Frederick Waterman Gough, Shanahan, Johnson & Waterman
Helena, MT
William Woodward Webb The Edmisten Webb & Hawes Law Firm
Raleigh, NC
Sarah N. Welling University of Kentucky College of Law
Lexington, KY
Lesley Brooks Wells U.S. District Court, Northern District of Ohio
Cleveland, OH
Kathleen M. Williams U.S. District Court, Southern District of Florida
Miami, FL
Samuel Brown Witt, III Bryan Brothers, Inc.
Richmond, VA
Mark L. Wolf U.S. District Court
Boston, MA
John A. Woodcock, Jr. U.S. District Court, District of Maine
Bangor, ME
Douglas P. Woodlock U.S. District Court, District of Massachusetts
Boston, MA
Robin E. Wosje The Justice Management Institute
Arlington, VA
Ronald F. Wright Wake Forest University School of Law
Winston Salem, NC
Wilhelmina M. Wright U.S. District Court of Minnesota
Saint Paul, MN
Linda R. Yañez Texas 13th Court of Appeals
Edinburg, TX
Melvyn Zarr University of Maine School of Law
Portland, ME
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