Restatement of the Law,

The Law of American Indians

This work covers the foundational principles of American Indian law. Comprehensive in scope, it provides descriptions of fundamental terms and addresses Indian statutes and treaties, tribal governance, the federal–tribal relationship, and Congressional powers over Indian affairs.

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  •  
    Tentative Draft No. 3
    Tentative Draft No. 3
    150 pages, 2019, #1RLAITD3

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

     

    Project Status at a Glance             xi

    Foreword            xiii

    Reporters’ Memorandum              xvii

     

    CHAPTER 3

    STATE–TRIBAL RELATIONS

    Subchapter 2 – The Indian Child Welfare Act and Similar State Laws

    Reporters’ Introductory Note About the Indian Child Welfare Act and Similar

             State Laws 1

    § 44. Application of the Indian Child Welfare Act   4

    § 45. Tribal Jurisdiction over Indian Child-Welfare Matters               11

    § 46. State-Court Jurisdiction       12

    § 47. Obligation to Notify Indian Child’s Parents, Custodians, and Indian Tribes        23

    § 48. Right to Intervene in State-Court Indian Child-Welfare Matters            28

    § 49. Dismissal of Indian Child-Welfare Matters When Tribe Has Exclusive

             Jurisdiction 30

    § 50. Transfer of Indian Child-Welfare Matters When Tribal and State Courts Share

              Concurrent Jurisdiction        32

    § 51. Termination of the Rights of an Indian Parent             34

     

    CHAPTER 4

    TRIBAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Subchapter 2 – Indian Tribes as Economic Actors

    § 58. Tribal Economic Enterprises               39

    § 59. Sovereign Immunity of Indian Tribes and Arms of Tribes          44

    § 60. Sovereign Immunity of Tribal Corporations Formed Pursuant to the Indian

             Reorganization Act and the Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act       49

    § 61. Sovereign Immunity of Tribal Corporations and Other Business Associations

              Formed Pursuant to Tribal Law         51

    § 62. Sovereign Immunity of Corporations and Other Business Associations

             Formed by Indian Tribes Pursuant to State Law            56

    § 63. State-Court Subject-Matter Jurisdiction over Actions to Enforce Economic

             Obligations Entered into by Indian Tribes and Their Economic Enterprises

              [Reserved] 61

    § 64. Federal-Court Jurisdiction over Actions to Enforce Economic Obligations

               Entered into by Indian Tribes and by Tribal Corporations:

               Diversity of Citizenship        61

    § 65. Federal-Court Jurisdiction over Actions to Enforce Economic

             Obligations Involving Indian Tribes: Federal Questions              68

    § 66. Federal-Court Jurisdiction over Actions Arising Under Federal Indian

             Common Law: Federal Questions      74

     

    CHAPTER 5

    INDIAN COUNTRY CRIMINAL JURISDICTION

    Reporters’ Introductory Note About Indian Country Criminal Jurisdiction    79

    Indian Country Criminal Jurisdictional Chart            80

    § 100. Indian Country      82

    § 101. Indian Status         86

    § 102. Scope of Federal Criminal Jurisdiction in Indian Country        89

    § 103. Scope of State Criminal Jurisdiction in Indian Country            97

    § 104. Federal Statutory Authorization of State Jurisdiction over Indian

               Country Crimes      101

    § 105. Scope of Tribal Criminal Jurisdiction             104

    § 106. Constitutional Rights of Persons Subject to Tribal Criminal Jurisdiction            108

    § 107. Federal Habeas Rights of Persons Detained by Indian Tribes 111

    § 108. Double Jeopardy  112

    Appendix A. Black Letter of Tentative Draft No. 3 115

    Appendix B. Other Relevant Black-Letter Text        125

    Tentative Draft No. 3 contains Chapter 3, Subchapter 2, §§ 44-51 (State-Tribal Relations–The Indian Child Welfare Act and Similar State Laws); Chapter 4, Subchapter 2, §§ 58-62 and 64-66 (Tribal Economic Development – Indian Tribes as Economic Actors); and Chapter 5, §§ 100-108 (Indian Country Criminal Jurisdiction). The draft was approved by the membership at the 2019 Annual Meeting, subject to the discussion at the Meeting and to the usual editorial prerogative. This material may be cited as representing the Institute’s position until the official text of the entire project is published.

    150 pages, 2019, #1RLAITD3E

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

     

    Project Status at a Glance             xi

    Foreword            xiii

    Reporters’ Memorandum              xvii

     

    CHAPTER 3

    STATE–TRIBAL RELATIONS

    Subchapter 2 – The Indian Child Welfare Act and Similar State Laws

    Reporters’ Introductory Note About the Indian Child Welfare Act and Similar

             State Laws 1

    § 44. Application of the Indian Child Welfare Act   4

    § 45. Tribal Jurisdiction over Indian Child-Welfare Matters               11

    § 46. State-Court Jurisdiction       12

    § 47. Obligation to Notify Indian Child’s Parents, Custodians, and Indian Tribes        23

    § 48. Right to Intervene in State-Court Indian Child-Welfare Matters            28

    § 49. Dismissal of Indian Child-Welfare Matters When Tribe Has Exclusive

             Jurisdiction 30

    § 50. Transfer of Indian Child-Welfare Matters When Tribal and State Courts Share

              Concurrent Jurisdiction        32

    § 51. Termination of the Rights of an Indian Parent             34

     

    CHAPTER 4

    TRIBAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Subchapter 2 – Indian Tribes as Economic Actors

    § 58. Tribal Economic Enterprises               39

    § 59. Sovereign Immunity of Indian Tribes and Arms of Tribes          44

    § 60. Sovereign Immunity of Tribal Corporations Formed Pursuant to the Indian

             Reorganization Act and the Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act       49

    § 61. Sovereign Immunity of Tribal Corporations and Other Business Associations

              Formed Pursuant to Tribal Law         51

    § 62. Sovereign Immunity of Corporations and Other Business Associations

             Formed by Indian Tribes Pursuant to State Law            56

    § 63. State-Court Subject-Matter Jurisdiction over Actions to Enforce Economic

             Obligations Entered into by Indian Tribes and Their Economic Enterprises

              [Reserved] 61

    § 64. Federal-Court Jurisdiction over Actions to Enforce Economic Obligations

               Entered into by Indian Tribes and by Tribal Corporations:

               Diversity of Citizenship        61

    § 65. Federal-Court Jurisdiction over Actions to Enforce Economic

             Obligations Involving Indian Tribes: Federal Questions              68

    § 66. Federal-Court Jurisdiction over Actions Arising Under Federal Indian

             Common Law: Federal Questions      74

     

    CHAPTER 5

    INDIAN COUNTRY CRIMINAL JURISDICTION

    Reporters’ Introductory Note About Indian Country Criminal Jurisdiction    79

    Indian Country Criminal Jurisdictional Chart            80

    § 100. Indian Country      82

    § 101. Indian Status         86

    § 102. Scope of Federal Criminal Jurisdiction in Indian Country        89

    § 103. Scope of State Criminal Jurisdiction in Indian Country            97

    § 104. Federal Statutory Authorization of State Jurisdiction over Indian

               Country Crimes      101

    § 105. Scope of Tribal Criminal Jurisdiction             104

    § 106. Constitutional Rights of Persons Subject to Tribal Criminal Jurisdiction            108

    § 107. Federal Habeas Rights of Persons Detained by Indian Tribes 111

    § 108. Double Jeopardy  112

    Appendix A. Black Letter of Tentative Draft No. 3 115

    Appendix B. Other Relevant Black-Letter Text        125

    Tentative Draft No. 3 contains Chapter 3, Subchapter 2, §§ 44-51 (State-Tribal Relations–The Indian Child Welfare Act and Similar State Laws); Chapter 4, Subchapter 2, §§ 58-62 and 64-66 (Tribal Economic Development – Indian Tribes as Economic Actors); and Chapter 5, §§ 100-108 (Indian Country Criminal Jurisdiction). The draft was approved by the membership at the 2019 Annual Meeting, subject to the discussion at the Meeting and to the usual editorial prerogative. This material may be cited as representing the Institute’s position until the official text of the entire project is published.

     
  •  
    Tentative Draft No. 2
    Tentative Draft No. 2
    102 pages, 2018, #1RLAITD2

    Project Status at a Glance................................................................................................... xi

    Reporters’ Memorandum................................................................................................. xvii

     

     

    Chapter 2

    Tribal Authority

    Reporters’ Introductory Note [to come]

    Definitions

     

    § 15. Indian Lands............................................................................................................... 1

    § 16. Nonmember Lands..................................................................................................... 6

     

    Subchapter 1 – Tribal Sovereignty in General

    Reporters’ Introduction [to come]

     

    § 20. Sources of Tribal Authority........................................................................................ 8

    § 21. Scope of Tribal Authority......................................................................................... 15

    § 22. Federal Statutory Regulation of Tribal Authority.................................................... 18

    § 23. Constitutional Rights of Persons Under Tribal Jurisdiction..................................... 21

     

    Subchapter 2 – The Powers of Indian Tribes

     

    § 24. The Power to Establish a Form of Government....................................................... 27

    § 25. The Power to Define Tribal Membership or Citizenship Criteria............................. 30

    § 26. The Power to Regulate Domestic Relations............................................................. 35

    § 27. The Power to Prescribe Rules of Inheritance............................................................ 37

    § 28. The Power to Tax...................................................................................................... 39

    § 29. The Power to Exclude.............................................................................................. 42

    § 30. The Power to Regulate the Use and Disposition of Property and Natural

              Resources................................................................................................................. 45

    § 31. The Power to Enforce Laws..................................................................................... 48

    § 32. Tribal Sovereign Immunity....................................................................................... 51

    § 34. Civil Regulatory and Adjudicatory Authority over Nonmembers........................... 58

    § 35. Tribal-Court Exhaustion Rule................................................................................... 70

     

     

    Appendix A. Black Letter of Tentative Draft No. 2..................................................... 77

     

    Appendix B. Other Relevant Black-Letter Text........................................................... 81

     

     

    Tentative Draft No. 2 contains Chapter 2, Tribal Authority (§§ 15-16, 20-32, 34-35). The draft was approved by the membership at the 2018 Annual Meeting, subject to the discussion at the Meeting and the usual editorial prerogative. This material may be cited as representing the Institute’s position until the official text of the entire project is published.

    102 pages, 2018, #1RLAITD2E

    Project Status at a Glance................................................................................................... xi

    Reporters’ Memorandum................................................................................................. xvii

     

     

    Chapter 2

    Tribal Authority

    Reporters’ Introductory Note [to come]

    Definitions

     

    § 15. Indian Lands............................................................................................................... 1

    § 16. Nonmember Lands..................................................................................................... 6

     

    Subchapter 1 – Tribal Sovereignty in General

    Reporters’ Introduction [to come]

     

    § 20. Sources of Tribal Authority........................................................................................ 8

    § 21. Scope of Tribal Authority......................................................................................... 15

    § 22. Federal Statutory Regulation of Tribal Authority.................................................... 18

    § 23. Constitutional Rights of Persons Under Tribal Jurisdiction..................................... 21

     

    Subchapter 2 – The Powers of Indian Tribes

     

    § 24. The Power to Establish a Form of Government....................................................... 27

    § 25. The Power to Define Tribal Membership or Citizenship Criteria............................. 30

    § 26. The Power to Regulate Domestic Relations............................................................. 35

    § 27. The Power to Prescribe Rules of Inheritance............................................................ 37

    § 28. The Power to Tax...................................................................................................... 39

    § 29. The Power to Exclude.............................................................................................. 42

    § 30. The Power to Regulate the Use and Disposition of Property and Natural

              Resources................................................................................................................. 45

    § 31. The Power to Enforce Laws..................................................................................... 48

    § 32. Tribal Sovereign Immunity....................................................................................... 51

    § 34. Civil Regulatory and Adjudicatory Authority over Nonmembers........................... 58

    § 35. Tribal-Court Exhaustion Rule................................................................................... 70

     

     

    Appendix A. Black Letter of Tentative Draft No. 2..................................................... 77

     

    Appendix B. Other Relevant Black-Letter Text........................................................... 81

     

     

    Tentative Draft No. 2 contains Chapter 2, Tribal Authority (§§ 15-16, 20-32, 34-35). The draft was approved by the membership at the 2018 Annual Meeting, subject to the discussion at the Meeting and the usual editorial prerogative. This material may be cited as representing the Institute’s position until the official text of the entire project is published.

     
  •  
    Tentative Draft No. 1
    Tentative Draft No. 1
    190 pages, 2015, #1RLAITD1

    Foreword

    Reporters’ Memorandum

    Chapter 1 - Federal–Tribal Relations 

    Reporters’ Introduction

         Note on the Foundational Principles of Federal Indian Law

         Historical Note

         Demographic Note

         Note on Leading Secondary Materials

         Note on Indian-Law Terminology

     

    General Terms

    § 1. Indian

    § 2. Indian Tribe

    § 3. Indian Country

    Federal–Tribal Relationship

    §4. General Federal Trust Relationship with Indian Tribes and Individual Indians

     

    American Indian Treaty Law

    § 5. American Indian Treaties

    § 6. Canons of Construction of Indian Treaties 

    Federal Legislation

    § 7. Congressional Authority

    § 8. Canon of Construction of Indian-Affairs Statutes

    § 9. Political-Status Classification

    Breach-Of-Trust Claims

    § 10. Suits by Indians and Tribes Against the United States

    Appendix. Black Letter of Tentative Draft No. 1

    This draft covers Chapter 1, Sections 1 thru 10: General Terms, the Federal-Tribal Relationship, American Indian Treaty Law, Federal Legislation, and Breach-of Trust Claims. Sections 1 thru 9 of Chapter 1 were approved by the membership at the 2015 Annual Meeting, subject to discussion at the meeting and to editorial prerogative. This approved material may be cited as representing the Institute’s position until the official text is published.

    190 pages, 2015, #1RLAITD1E

    Foreword

    Reporters’ Memorandum

    Chapter 1 - Federal–Tribal Relations 

    Reporters’ Introduction

         Note on the Foundational Principles of Federal Indian Law

         Historical Note

         Demographic Note

         Note on Leading Secondary Materials

         Note on Indian-Law Terminology

     

    General Terms

    § 1. Indian

    § 2. Indian Tribe

    § 3. Indian Country

    Federal–Tribal Relationship

    §4. General Federal Trust Relationship with Indian Tribes and Individual Indians

     

    American Indian Treaty Law

    § 5. American Indian Treaties

    § 6. Canons of Construction of Indian Treaties 

    Federal Legislation

    § 7. Congressional Authority

    § 8. Canon of Construction of Indian-Affairs Statutes

    § 9. Political-Status Classification

    Breach-Of-Trust Claims

    § 10. Suits by Indians and Tribes Against the United States

    Appendix. Black Letter of Tentative Draft No. 1

    This draft covers Chapter 1, Sections 1 thru 10: General Terms, the Federal–Tribal Relationship, American Indian Treaty Law, Federal Legislation, and Breach-of-Trust Claims. Sections 1 thru 9 of Chapter 1 were approved by the membership at the 2015 Annual Meeting, subject to discussion at the meeting and to editorial prerogative. This approved material may be cited as representing the Institute’s position until the official text is published.

     
  •  
    Discussion Draft No. 2
    Discussion Draft No. 2
    232 pages, 2014, #1R3LAIDD2

    Softbound  | 1R3LAIDD2  | 2014  | 232 pages  | $35.00

    Foreword
    Reporters’ Memorandum
    Draft Outline of Chapter 2 Tribal Governance
    Draft Outline of Chapter 4 Economic Relations

    CHAPTER 1 FEDERAL–TRIBAL RELATIONS

    Introductory Note
    Introduction

    GENERAL TERMS
    § 1. Indian
    § 2 Indian tribe
    § 3 Indian country

    AMERICAN INDIAN TREATY LAW
    § 4. American Indian Treaties
    § 5. Canons of Construction of Indian Treaties

    CONGRESSIONAL AUTHORITY
    § 6. Congressional Legislative Jurisdiction
    § 7. Canon of Construction of Indian Statutes
    § 8. Political-Status Classification

    FEDERAL–TRIBAL TRUST RELATIONSHIP
    § 9. General Federal Trust Relationship with Indian Tribes and Individual Indians
    § 10. Suits by Indians and Tribes Against the United States for Money Damages
    § 11. Suits by Indians and Tribes Against the United States for Equitable and Other  Relief

    MISCELLANEOUS
    § 12. Reservation Boundaries

    Appendix. Black Letter of Discussion Draft No. 2

    This draft includes a comprehensive survey of the history of American Indian law and policy. It was submitted, for discussion only, at the 2014 Annual Meeting. As planned, no vote was taken.

    232 pages, 2014, #1R3LAIDD2E

    Softbound  | 1R3LAIDD2  | 2014  | 232 pages  | $35.00

    Foreword
    Reporters’ Memorandum
    Draft Outline of Chapter 2 Tribal Governance
    Draft Outline of Chapter 4 Economic Relations

    CHAPTER 1 FEDERAL–TRIBAL RELATIONS

    Introductory Note
    Introduction

    GENERAL TERMS
    § 1. Indian
    § 2 Indian tribe
    § 3 Indian country

    AMERICAN INDIAN TREATY LAW
    § 4. American Indian Treaties
    § 5. Canons of Construction of Indian Treaties

    CONGRESSIONAL AUTHORITY
    § 6. Congressional Legislative Jurisdiction
    § 7. Canon of Construction of Indian Statutes
    § 8. Political-Status Classification

    FEDERAL–TRIBAL TRUST RELATIONSHIP
    § 9. General Federal Trust Relationship with Indian Tribes and Individual Indians
    § 10. Suits by Indians and Tribes Against the United States for Money Damages
    § 11. Suits by Indians and Tribes Against the United States for Equitable and Other  Relief

    MISCELLANEOUS
    § 12. Reservation Boundaries

    Appendix. Black Letter of Discussion Draft No. 2

    This draft includes a comprehensive survey of the history of American Indian law and policy. It was submitted, for discussion only, at the 2014 Annual Meeting. As planned, no vote was taken.

     
  •  
    Discussion Draft
    Discussion Draft
    177 pages, 2013, #1R3LAIDD

    Softbound  | 1R3LAIDD  | 2013  | 177 pages  | $30.00

    Foreword
    Reporters’ Memorandum

    CHAPTER 1
    FEDERAL–TRIBAL RELATIONS

    Introductory Note
    § 1. Definitions
    § 2. Congressional Legislative Jurisdiction
    § 3. Federal Trust Relationship with Indian Tribes and Individual Indians
    § 4. Congressional Authority over Internal Tribal Governance
    § 5. Congress’s Authority Is Exclusive as to State Law
    § 6. Congressional Delegation of Indian-Affairs Authority
    § 7. Canon of Construction of Indian Statutes
    § 8. Political-Status Classification
    § 9. Executive-Branch Indian-Affairs Authority and Trust Responsibility
    § 10. American Indian Treaties
    § 11. Federal Recognition of Indian Tribes
    § 12. Indian-Country Boundaries
    § 13. Federal Statutes of General Applicability
    § 14. Federal Judicial Deference to Congressional Policy

    Appendix. Black Letter of Discussion Draft

    This draft includes a comprehensive survey of the history of American Indian law and policy. It was submitted, for discussion only, at the 2013 Annual Meeting. As planned, no vote was taken.

    177 pages, 2013, #1R3LAIDDE

    Softbound  | 1R3LAIDD  | 2013  | 177 pages  | $30.00

    Foreword
    Reporters’ Memorandum

    CHAPTER 1
    FEDERAL–TRIBAL RELATIONS

    Introductory Note
    § 1. Definitions
    § 2. Congressional Legislative Jurisdiction
    § 3. Federal Trust Relationship with Indian Tribes and Individual Indians
    § 4. Congressional Authority over Internal Tribal Governance
    § 5. Congress’s Authority Is Exclusive as to State Law
    § 6. Congressional Delegation of Indian-Affairs Authority
    § 7. Canon of Construction of Indian Statutes
    § 8. Political-Status Classification
    § 9. Executive-Branch Indian-Affairs Authority and Trust Responsibility
    § 10. American Indian Treaties
    § 11. Federal Recognition of Indian Tribes
    § 12. Indian-Country Boundaries
    § 13. Federal Statutes of General Applicability
    § 14. Federal Judicial Deference to Congressional Policy

    Appendix. Black Letter of Discussion Draft

    This draft includes a comprehensive survey of the history of American Indian law and policy. It was submitted, for discussion only, at the 2013 Annual Meeting. As planned, no vote was taken.