Principles of the Law,

Policing

This project aims to tackle some of the hardest questions, where courts, legislatures, and police are most in need of guidance. This project is currently divided into seven parts, each containing various Chapters on police principles. The parts are: Overarching Principles Of Policing; Principles of Search And Seizure; Use of Force; Technology; Databases; Principles Of Evidence Gathering; Remedies and Accountability.

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  •  
    Tentative Draft No. 3
    320 pages, 2021, #1PLPITD3E

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

     

     

    Section                                                                                                                              Page

     

    Project Status at a Glance................................................................................................. xix

    Foreword.......................................................................................................................... xxi

    Reporter’s Memorandum................................................................................................ xxiii

    Projected Overall Table of Contents............................................................................. xxvii

     

    CHAPTER 1

    GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF SOUND POLICING

    § 1.03. Constitutional Policing............................................................................................ 1

    § 1.09. Furthering Legitimate Policing Objectives.............................................................. 4

    § 1.10. Policing for the Purposes of Revenue Generation................................................... 6

    § 1.11. Policing on the Basis of Protected Characteristics or First

                Amendment Activity............................................................................................. 10

     

    CHAPTER 2

    GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF SEARCHES,

    SEIZURES, AND INFORMATION GATHERING

    § 2.01. Suspicion-Based and Suspicionless Policing Activity........................................... 17

    § 2.02. Information Gathering........................................................................................... 20

    § 2.03. Establishing Prior Justification for Government Action through Warrants

                  and Recordings.................................................................................................... 29

    § 2.04. Use of Pretextual Policing..................................................................................... 37

    § 2.05. Acquiring or Accessing Data, Records, or Physical Evidence

                Held by Third Parties............................................................................................. 42

    § 2.06. Police Use of Algorithms and Profiles.................................................................. 55

    § 2.07. Heightened Intrusions........................................................................................... 65

    § 2.08. Limiting the Impact of Outstanding Warrants...................................................... 69

     

    CHAPTER 3

    POLICING WITH INDIVIDUALIZED SUSPICION

    § 3.01. Definition and Legality of Suspicion-Based Searches, Seizures,

                and Information Gathering.................................................................................... 77

    § 3.02. Appropriate Safeguards......................................................................................... 79

    § 3.03. Minimization.......................................................................................................... 89

    § 3.04. Documentation, Auditing, and Reporting............................................................. 91

    § 3.05. Notification to Courts and Targets of Investigations............................................ 96

     

    CHAPTER 5

    POLICING IN THE ABSENCE OF INDIVIDUALIZED SUSPICION

    § 5.01. Definition and Legality of Suspicionless Policing Activity................................ 105

    § 5.02. Need for Written Policies.................................................................................... 112

    § 5.03. Justification.......................................................................................................... 118

    § 5.04. Nondiscrimination in Determining the Targeted Group...................................... 120

    § 5.05. Constraining Discretion....................................................................................... 124

    § 5.06. Suspicionless Police Activity Beyond the Authorized Scope............................. 130

     

     

    CHAPTER 6

    POLICING DATABASES

    § 6.01. Authorization....................................................................................................... 135

    § 6.02. Purging of Databases........................................................................................... 145

    § 6.03. Accuracy.............................................................................................................. 150

    § 6.04. Security................................................................................................................ 157

    § 6.05. Police Access to Databases.................................................................................. 160

    § 6.06. Accountability..................................................................................................... 163

     

    CHAPTER 8

    GENERAL PRINCIPLES FOR COLLECTING AND PRESERVING RELIABLE EVIDENCE FOR THE ADJUDICATIVE PROCESS

    § 8.01. General Principles for Evidence Collection, Analysis, and Preservation............ 169

    § 8.02. Documenting Evidence....................................................................................... 173

    § 8.03. Disclosure of Evidence........................................................................................ 177

    § 8.04. Preservation and Retention of Evidence............................................................. 182

    § 8.05. Cognitive Bias and Evidence Collection............................................................. 184

     

    CHAPTER 9

    FORENSIC-EVIDENCE GATHERING

    § 9.01. General Principles for Forensic Evidence............................................................ 187

    § 9.02. Forensic-Evidence Collection.............................................................................. 195

    § 9.03. Policies for Forensic Testing................................................................................ 198

    § 9.04. Quality Controls and Performance Testing......................................................... 200

    § 9.05. Minimizing Human Factors in the Evaluation of Forensic Evidence.................. 204

    § 9.06. Disclosure of Forensic Evidence......................................................................... 207

    § 9.07. Forensic-Evidence Preservation........................................................................... 212

     

    CHAPTER 13

    PROMOTING SOUND POLICING WITHIN AGENCIES

    § 13.01. Agency Role in Promoting Sound Policing....................................................... 217

    § 13.02. Recruitment and Hiring..................................................................................... 218

    § 13.03. Adequate Training for Agency Employees....................................................... 229

    § 13.04. Promoting Officer Well-being .......................................................................... 236

    § 13.05. Supervision........................................................................................................ 241

    § 13.06. Individual Responsibility to Promote Sound Policing...................................... 247

    § 13.07. Responding to Allegations of Misconduct........................................................ 251

    § 13.08 Incident Review................................................................................................. 258

     

    Appendix A. Black Letter of Tentative Draft No. 3................................................... 263

    Appendix B. Black Letter of Sections Approved by Membership............................ 281        

    Tentative Draft No. 3 contains additions to Chapter 1, General Principles of Sound Policing; Chapter 2, General Principles of Searches, Seizures, and Information Gathering; Chapter 3, Policing with Individualized Suspicion; Chapter 5, Policing in the Absence of Individualized Suspicion; Chapter 6, Policing Databases; Chapter 8, General Principles for Collecting and Preserving Reliable Evidence for the Adjudicative Process; Chapter 9, Forensic-Evidence Gathering; and Chapter 13, Promoting Sound Policing Within Agencies. This draft was approved by the membership at the 2021 Annual Meeting, subject to the discussion at the Meeting and to editorial prerogative. This material may be cited as representing the Institute’s position until the official text is published.

     
  •  
    Tentative Draft No. 2
    Tentative Draft No. 2
    162 pages, 2019, #1PLPITD2

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

     

    Project Status at a Glance             xv

    Foreword            xvii

    Reporters’ Memorandum              xxi

    Projected Overall Table of Contents          xxv

     

    CHAPTER 1

    GENERAL PRINCIPLES

     

    § 1.01. Scope and Applicability of Principles            1

    § 1.02. Goals of Policing 4

    § 1.03. Reducing Harm    5

    § 1.04. Transparency and Accountability  12

    § 1.05. Written Rules, Policies, and Procedures     15

    § 1.06. Promoting Police Legitimacy          22

    § 1.07. Community Policing          25

     

    CHAPTER 4

    POLICE ENCOUNTERS

     

    § 4.01. Officer-Initiated Encounters with Individuals           35

    § 4.02. Justification for Encounters            39

    § 4.03. Ensuring the Legitimacy of Police Encounters          46

    § 4.04. Permissible Intrusions During Stops             54

    § 4.05. Minimizing Intrusiveness of Stops and Arrests          55

    § 4.06. Consent Searches              60

    § 4.07. Searches Incident to a Lawful Custodial Arrest        65

     

    CHAPTER 10

    EYEWITNESS IDENTIFICATIONS

     

    § 10.01. General Principles for Eyewitness Identification Procedures            73

    § 10.02. Eyewitness Identification Procedures       77

    § 10.03. Threshold for Conducting Eyewitness Identifications          83

    § 10.04. Showup Procedures        86

    § 10.05. Blind or Blinded Procedures         90

    § 10.06. Obtaining and Documenting Eyewitness Confidence Statements    92

    § 10.07. Reinforcement or Feedback         95

    § 10.08. Recording Eyewitness Identification Procedures   96

     

    CHAPTER 11

    POLICE QUESTIONING

     

    § 11.01. Objectives of Police Questioning 99

    § 11.02. Recording of Police Questioning 107

    § 11.03. Informing Persons of Their Rights Prior to Questioning      112

    § 11.04. Conducting Police Questioning    114

    § 11.05. Questioning of Members of Vulnerable Populations           119

     

     

    Appendix A. Black Letter of Tentative Draft No. 2 125

     

    Appendix B. Other Relevant Black-Letter Text        135

    Tentative Draft No. 2 contains portions of Chapter 1, General Principles (§§ 1.01-1.07); Chapter 4, Police Encounters; Chapter 10, Eyewitness Identifications; and Chapter 11, Police Questioning. The draft was approved by the membership at the 2019 Annual Meeting, subject to the discussion at the Meeting and to the usual editorial prerogative. This material may be cited as representing the Institute’s position until the official text of the entire project is published.

    162 pages, 2019, #1PLPITD2E

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

     

    Project Status at a Glance             xv

    Foreword            xvii

    Reporters’ Memorandum              xxi

    Projected Overall Table of Contents          xxv

     

    CHAPTER 1

    GENERAL PRINCIPLES

     

    § 1.01. Scope and Applicability of Principles            1

    § 1.02. Goals of Policing 4

    § 1.03. Reducing Harm    5

    § 1.04. Transparency and Accountability  12

    § 1.05. Written Rules, Policies, and Procedures     15

    § 1.06. Promoting Police Legitimacy          22

    § 1.07. Community Policing          25

     

    CHAPTER 4

    POLICE ENCOUNTERS

     

    § 4.01. Officer-Initiated Encounters with Individuals           35

    § 4.02. Justification for Encounters            39

    § 4.03. Ensuring the Legitimacy of Police Encounters          46

    § 4.04. Permissible Intrusions During Stops             54

    § 4.05. Minimizing Intrusiveness of Stops and Arrests          55

    § 4.06. Consent Searches              60

    § 4.07. Searches Incident to a Lawful Custodial Arrest        65

     

    CHAPTER 10

    EYEWITNESS IDENTIFICATIONS

     

    § 10.01. General Principles for Eyewitness Identification Procedures            73

    § 10.02. Eyewitness Identification Procedures       77

    § 10.03. Threshold for Conducting Eyewitness Identifications          83

    § 10.04. Showup Procedures        86

    § 10.05. Blind or Blinded Procedures         90

    § 10.06. Obtaining and Documenting Eyewitness Confidence Statements    92

    § 10.07. Reinforcement or Feedback         95

    § 10.08. Recording Eyewitness Identification Procedures   96

     

    CHAPTER 11

    POLICE QUESTIONING

     

    § 11.01. Objectives of Police Questioning 99

    § 11.02. Recording of Police Questioning 107

    § 11.03. Informing Persons of Their Rights Prior to Questioning      112

    § 11.04. Conducting Police Questioning    114

    § 11.05. Questioning of Members of Vulnerable Populations           119

     

     

    Appendix A. Black Letter of Tentative Draft No. 2 125

     

    Appendix B. Other Relevant Black-Letter Text        135

    Tentative Draft No. 2 contains portions of Chapter 1, General Principles (§§ 1.01-1.07); Chapter 4, Police Encounters; Chapter 10, Eyewitness Identifications; and Chapter 11, Police Questioning. The draft was approved by the membership at the 2019 Annual Meeting, subject to the discussion at the Meeting and to the usual editorial prerogative. This material may be cited as representing the Institute’s position until the official text of the entire project is published.

     
  •  
    Tentative Draft No. 1 - Revised
    2017, #1PLPITD1ER

     

    Revised Tentative Draft No. 1 contains Part III, Chapter 5, Use of Force. The draft was approved by the membership at the 2017 Annual Meeting, subject to the discussion at the Meeting and the usual editorial prerogative. This material may be cited as representing the Institute’s position until the official text is published.

     
  •  
    Tentative Draft No. 1
    Tentative Draft No. 1
    56 pages, 2017, #1PLPITD1

    Foreword  xv

    Reporter’s Memorandum  xix

    Projected Overall Table of Contents  xxix

    Part III

    USE OF FORCE

    CHAPTER 5

    USE OF FORCE

    § 5.01. Objectives of the Use of Force  1

    § 5.02. Minimum Force Necessary  4

    § 5.03. De-escalation and Force Avoidance  12

    § 5.04. Proportional Use of Force  16

    § 5.05. Instructions and Warnings  21

    Appendix: Black Letter of Tentative Draft No. 1  25

    Tentative Draft No 1 contains Part III, Chapter 5, Use of Force. The draft was approved by the membership at the 2017 Annual Meeting, subject to the discussion at the Meeting and the usual editorial prerogative. This material may be cited as representing the Institute’s position until the official text is published.

    56 pages, 2017, #1PLPITD1E

    Foreword  xv

    Reporter’s Memorandum  xix

    Projected Overall Table of Contents  xxix

    Part III

    USE OF FORCE

    CHAPTER 5

    USE OF FORCE

    § 5.01. Objectives of the Use of Force  1

    § 5.02. Minimum Force Necessary  4

    § 5.03. De-escalation and Force Avoidance  12

    § 5.04. Proportional Use of Force  16

    § 5.05. Instructions and Warnings  21

    Appendix: Black Letter of Tentative Draft No. 1  25

    Tentative Draft No 1 contains Part III, Chapter 5, Use of Force. The draft was approved by the membership at the 2017 Annual Meeting, subject to the discussion at the Meeting and the usual editorial prerogative. This material may be cited as representing the Institute’s position until the official text is published.