Restatement of the Law,

Constitutional Torts

This Restatement will examine the law of individual rights to sue government employees and others “acting under color of state law” under 42 U.S.C. § 1983 and Bivens actions. It will also cover restrictions on § 1983 actions imposed by the Prison Litigation Reform Act and the overlapping law of federal habeas corpus.
  • Status
  • Participants

The Council approved the initiation of this project in October 2022. ALI members may join the Members Consultative Group.

The first meeting of the Advisers and Members Consultative Group is expected to be held in Fall 2024.

Reporters
John Calvin Jeffries, Jr. University of Virginia School of Law
Charlottesville, VA
Pamela S. Karlan Stanford Law School
Stanford, CA
Associate Reporters
Alan K. Chen University of Denver, Sturm College of Law
Denver, CO
Margaret Z. Johns University of California, Davis
Davis, CA
James E. Pfander Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law
Chicago, IL
Fred O. Smith, Jr. Emory University School of Law
Atlanta, GA
Michael Wells University of Georgia School of Law
Athens, GA
Advisers
William Baude University of Chicago Law School
Chicago, IL
Jack Beermann Boston University School of Law
Boston, MA
Wendy Beetlestone U.S. District Court, Eastern District of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA
Anya Bidwell Institute for Justice
Arlington, VA
Michael G. Collins University of Virginia School of Law
Charlottesville, VA
Gonzalo P. Curiel U.S. District Court, Southern District of California
San Diego, CA
William A. Fletcher U.S. Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit
San Francisco, CA
Paul L. Friedman U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia
Washington, DC
John Gleeson Debevoise & Plimpton LLP
New York, NY
Yvonne Gonzalez Rogers U.S. District Court, Northern District of California
Oakland, CA
Toby Jay Heytens United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit
Richmond, VA
Mark R. Hornak U.S. District Court, Western District of Pennsylvania
Pittsburgh, PA
Adalberto J. Jordan U.S. Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit
Miami, FL
Richard B. Katskee Duke University School of Law
Durham, NC
Virginia M. Kendall U.S. District Court, Northern District of Illinois
Chicago, IL
Seth F. Kreimer University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School
Philadelphia, PA
Alexandra D. Lahav Cornell Law School
Ithaca, NY
Jennifer Laurin University of Texas School of Law
Austin, TX
Leah M. Litman University of Michigan Law School
Ann Arbor, MI
John G. Malcolm The Heritage Foundation
Washington, DC
Mary Massaron Plunkett Cooney, P.C.
Bloomfield Hills, MI
Stephen R. McAllister University of Kansas School of Law
Lawrence, KS
Scott Michelman American Civil Liberties Union
New York, NY
Jane Elinor Notz Office of the Illinois Attorney General
Chicago, IL
Eugene P. Ramirez Manning Kass
Los Angeles, CA
Alexander A. Reinert Yeshiva University, Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law
New York, NY
Lee H. Rosenthal U.S. District Court, Southern District of Texas
Houston, TX
David Rudovsky Kairys, Rudovsky, Messing, Feinberg & Lin LLP
Philadelphia, PA
Joanna C. Schwartz University of California, Los Angeles School of Law
Los Angeles, CA
Michael H. Simon United States District Court for the District of Oregon
Portland, OR
Gregory Charles Sisk University of St. Thomas School of Law
Minneapolis, MN
Amy Totenberg U.S. District Court, Northern District of Georgia
Atlanta, GA
Howard M. Wasserman Florida International University College of Law
Miami, FL
Members Consultative Group
Kenneth S. Abraham University of Virginia School of Law
Charlottesville, VA
James M. Anderson RAND Corporation
Pittsburgh, PA
Christopher Edward Appel Shook, Hardy & Bacon LLP
Washington, DC
David J. Aronofsky The University of Montana School of Law (Retired)
Missoula, MT
Ronald G. Aronovsky Southwestern Law School
Los Angeles, CA
Donald B. Ayer Mc Lean, VA
Nannette A. Baker U.S. District Court, Eastern District of Missouri
Saint Louis, MO
Thad H. Balkman District Court, State of Oklahoma
Norman, OK
William W. Barrett Williams Barrett & Wilkowski, LLP
Greenwood, IN
William Baude University of Chicago Law School
Chicago, IL
Michael M. Baylson U.S. District Court, Eastern District of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA
Michael M. Berger Manatt, Phelps & Phillips, LLP
Los Angeles, CA
Mark I. Bernstein Philadelphia, PA
Ashutosh A. Bhagwat University of California, Davis School of Law
Davis, CA
Jeff J. Bowen Lindemann Miller Bowen LLP
Madison, WI
Thomas H. Boyd Winthrop & Weinstine, PA
Minneapolis, MN
Peter Bray U.S. District Court, Southern District of Texas
Houston, TX
Jacquelyn L. Bridgeman University of Wyoming College of Law
Laramie, WY
Jean-Jacques Cabou Perkins Coie LLP
Phoenix, AZ
Elissa F. Cadish Supreme Court of Nevada
Carson City, NV
W. Jonathan Cardi Wake Forest University School of Law
Winston-Salem, NC
Edmond E. Chang U.S. District Court, Northern District of Illinois
Chicago, IL
Yee Wah Chin Ingram Yuzek Gainen Carroll & Bertolotti, LLP
New York, NY
Laurence Paul Claus University of San Diego School of Law
San Diego, CA
Zachary D. Clopton Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law
Chicago, IL
Jia Michelle Cobb U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia
Washington, DC
Michael G. Colantuono Colantuono, Highsmith & Whatley, PC
Grass Valley, CA
Kevin L. Cole University of San Diego School of Law
San Diego, CA
George W. Conk Fordham University School of Law
New York, NY
Kelsi B. Corkran Institute for Constitutional Advocacy and Protection, Georgetown Law
Washington, DC
Michelle Williams Court Superior Court of California, County of Los Angeles
Los Angeles, CA
Andrew Manuel Crespo Harvard Law School
Cambridge, MA
Michael Crommelin Melbourne Law School
Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Thomas L. Cubbage, III The Center for American and International Law
Plano, TX
Rueben C. Cásarez Wells Fargo & Co. (Retired)
Evergreen, CO
Anuj C. Desai University of Wisconsin Law School
Madison, WI
Donald L. Doernberg Pace University, Elisabeth Haub School of Law (Retired)
Penn Valley, CA
James B. Dolan, Jr. Bager, Dolan, Parker & Cohen
Boston, MA
Joshua A. Douglas University of Kentucky, J. David Rosenberg College of Law
Lexington, KY
Kevin J. Doyle U.S. District Court, District of Vermont
Burlington, VT
C. Wilson DuBose DuBose Law Group LLC
Madison, GA
Avlana K. Eisenberg Boston College Law School
Newton Center, MA
Ronald Eisenberg Pennsylvania Attorney General's Office
Philadelphia, PA
Anne S. Emanuel Georgia State University College of Law (Retired)
Atlanta, GA
Ralph R. Erickson U.S. Court of Appeals, Eighth Circuit
Fargo, ND
Katie R. Eyer Rutgers Law School
Camden, NJ
Richard G. Feder Philadelphia, PA
Gary Feinerman Latham & Watkins LLP
Chicago, IL
Barry Friedman New York University School of Law
New York, NY
Maggie Gardner Cornell Law School
Ithaca, NY
Frederick Mark Gedicks Brigham Young University, J. Reuben Clark Law School
Provo, UT
Benjamin D. Geffen Public Interest Law Center
Philadelphia, PA
Steven S. Gensler University of Oklahoma College of Law
Norman, OK
Joseph M. Getty Supreme Court of Maryland
Annapolis, MD
Llewellyn Joseph Gibbons University of Toledo College of Law
Toledo, OH
Christine Chambers Goodman Pepperdine University, Caruso School of Law
Malibu, CA
Paul A. Gowder, Jr. Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law
Chicago, IL
Charles E. Griffin Butler Snow LLP
Ridgeland, MS
Simona Grossi Loyola Law School, Los Angeles
Los Angeles, CA
Catherine M. Grosso Michigan State University College of Law
East Lansing, MI
David W. Gruning Loyola University New Orleans College of Law
Abita Springs, LA
Tracy Raffles Gunn Gunn Appellate Practice P.A.
Tampa, FL
Michael A. Harring Chicago, IL
Thomas Healy Seton Hall University School of Law
Newark, NJ
Stephen E. Henderson University of Oklahoma College of Law
Norman, OK
Richard Conrad Henke Thomas M. Cooley Law School
Lansing, MI
Eric L. Hirschhorn Winston & Strawn LLP
Washington, DC
Edwin E. Huddleson Washington, DC
LaShonda A. Hunt U.S. District Court, Northern District of Illinois
Chicago, IL
Aziz Zahirul Huq University of Chicago Law School
Chicago, IL
Daniel G. Jarcho Alston & Bird LLP
Washington, DC
Kirk C. Jenkins Half Moon Bay, CA
Richard Gibbs Johnson RGJ LLC
Cleveland, OH
Anthony Johnstone U.S. Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit
Missoula, MT
Robb Jones United Educators (Retired)
Ashburn, VA
Anil Kalhan Drexel University Thomas R. Kline School of Law
Philadelphia, PA
D. Arthur Kelsey Supreme Court of Virginia
Richmond, VA
Orin S. Kerr University of California, Berkeley School of Law
Berkeley, CA
Steve Kim U.S. District Court, Central District of California
Los Angeles, CA
Sarah M. Konsky University of Chicago Law School
Chicago, IL
Ajay Krishnan Keker, Van Nest & Peters LLP
San Francisco, CA
Peter B Kutner University of Oklahoma College of Law
Norman, OK
Douglas Laycock University of Virginia School of Law (Retired)
Charlottesville, VA
Thomas S. Leatherbury Thomas S. Leatherbury Law, PLLC
Dallas, TX
Evan Tsen Lee University of California College of the Law, San Francisco
San Francisco, CA
Thomas H. Lee Fordham University School of Law
New York, NY
Nancy Leong University of Denver, Sturm College of Law
Denver, CO
George W. Liebmann Liebmann & Shively, P.A.
Baltimore, MD
Lewis J. Liman U.S. District Court, Southern District of New York
New York, NY
Susan M. Lin Kairys, Rudovsky, Messing, Feinberg & Lin LLP
Philadelphia, PA
Mark J. Loewenstein University of Colorado Law School
Boulder, CO
Andrés W. López The Law Offices of Andrés W. López P.S.C.
San Juan, PR
Patrick A. Malone Patrick Malone & Associates, PC
Washington, DC
Suzette Malveaux University of Colorado Law School
Boulder, CO
Jeffrey A. Mandell Stafford Rosenbaum LLP
Madison, WI
Michael J. Mannheimer Northern Kentucky University, Chase College of Law
Cincinnati, OH
C. Scott Maravilla U.S. Federal Aviation Administration
Washington, DC
Araceli Martínez-Olguín U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California
San Francisco, CA
Steven L. Mayer Arnold & Porter
San Francisco, CA
James T. McCartt Triangle Peak Partners LP
Knoxville, TN
Marcia L. McCormick St. Louis University School of Law
Saint Louis, MO
James C. McKay, Jr. Office of the Attorney General for the District of Columbia
Washington, DC
M. Isabel Medina Loyola University New Orleans College of Law
New Orleans, LA
Thomas Butler Merritt Littleton, NH
Darrell A.H. Miller Duke University School of Law
Durham, NC
Paul Mogin Williams & Connolly LLP (Retired)
Chevy Chase, MD
Valerie M. Nannery American Constitution Society
Washington, DC
Jonathan R. Nash Emory University School of Law
Atlanta, GA
Robert G. Newman Fulbright & Jaworski LLP (Retired)
San Antonio, TX
Eric S. Nguyen U.S. Department of the Treasury
Washington, DC
Oren Nimni Rights Behind Bars
Washington, DC
Joel W. Nomkin Perkins Coie LLP
Phoenix, AZ
Barbara O'Brien Michigan State University College of Law
East Lansing, MI
James M. Oleske, Jr. Lewis & Clark Law School
Portland, OR
Sean Olivas Jennings Haug Keleher McLeod LLP
Albuquerque, NM
Eric R. Olson Olson Grimsley Kawanabe Hinchcliff & Murray LLC
Denver, CO
Ryan Y. Park North Carolina Department of Justice
Raleigh, NC
Jeffrey A. Parness Northern Illinois University College of Law
DeKalb, IL
John T. Parry Lewis & Clark Law School
Portland, OR
Robert S. Peck Center for Constitutional Litigation, PC
Washington, DC
Mary Kelly Persyn Persyn Law & Policy
San Francisco, CA
Stuart A. Raphael Court of Appeals of Virginia
Richmond, VA
Connor N. Raso Public Company Accounting Oversight Board
Washington, DC
Gerald S. Reamey St. Mary's University School of Law
San Antonio, TX
Henry R. Reeve Denver District Attorney's Office (Retired)
Denver, CO
Daniel I.S.J. Rey-Bear Rey-Bear McLaughlin LLP
Spokane, WA
Sarah E. Ricks Rutgers Law School
Camden, NJ
Augustin Rivera, Jr. Del Mar Community College District
Corpus Christi, TX
Lauren K. Robel Indiana University, Maurer School of Law
Falmouth, MA
Russell K. Robinson University of California, Berkeley School of Law
Berkeley, CA
Robin L. Rosenberg U.S. District Court, Southern District of Florida
West Palm Beach, FL
Bertrall L. Ross University of Virginia School of Law
Charlottesville, VA
Thomas D. Rowe, Jr. Duke University School of Law
Marina del Rey, CA
Lynn Hecht Schafran Legal Momentum
New York, NY
Mary M. Schroeder U.S. Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit
Phoenix, AZ
Michael Schwarz Santa Fe, NM
Matthew R. Segal American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)
Boston, MA
Peter M. Shane New York University School of Law
New York, NY
Allen E. Shoenberger Loyola University Chicago School of Law
Chicago, IL
Kenneth W. Simons University of California, Irvine School of Law
Irvine, CA
Stuart H. Singer Boies Schiller Flexner LLP
Fort Lauderdale, FL
Matthew D. Slater Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton LLP
Washington, DC
Duston J. Slinkard U.S. Attorney's Office, District of Kansas
Topeka, KS
David L. Sloss Santa Clara University School of Law
Santa Clara, CA
Fred O. Smith, Jr. Emory University School of Law
Atlanta, GA
Steven R. Smith California Western School of Law
San Diego, CA
Carl A. Solano Superior Court of Pennsylvania (Retired)
Philadelphia, PA
Arthur B. Spitzer American Civil Liberties Union of the District of Columbia
Washington, DC
Victor P. Stabile Superior Court of Pennsylvania
Harrisburg, PA
Jason P. Steed University of Kentucky, J. David Rosenberg College of Law
Lexington, KY
Adam N. Steinman University of Alabama School of Law
Tuscaloosa, AL
Paul David Stern U.S. Department of the Interior
Washington, DC
H. Mark Stichel RKW Law Group
Baltimore, MD
Catherine T. Struve University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School
Philadelphia, PA
Guy Miller Struve Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP (Retired)
New York, NY
Barry Sullivan Loyola University Chicago School of Law
Chicago, IL
Ria Tabacco Mar American Civil Liberties Union
New York, NY
David K. Thomson New Mexico Supreme Court
Santa Fe, NM
Jay Tidmarsh Notre Dame Law School
Notre Dame, IN
Jon S. Tigar U.S. District Court, Northern District of California
Oakland, CA
Daniel Patrick Tokaji University of Wisconsin Law School
Madison, WI
Michael E. Tolbert Tolbert & Tolbert LLC
Gary, IN
Raymond P. Tolentino Washington, DC
Ethan V. Torrey Supreme Court of the United States
Washington, DC
Daniel Mack Traynor U.S. District Court, District of North Dakota
Bismarck, ND
Robert L. Tsai Boston University School of Law
Boston, MA
Paul J. Van de Graaf U.S. Attorney's Office, District of Vermont
Burlington, VT
Caroline S. Van Zile Office of the Attorney General for the District of Columbia
Washington, DC
Louis J. Virelli, III Stetson University College of Law
Saint Petersburg, FL
John L. Warden Sullivan & Cromwell LLP
New York, NY
David G. Webbert Johnson Webbert, LLP
Topsham, ME
Douglas P. Woodlock U.S. District Court, District of Massachusetts
Boston, MA
Eric H. Zagrans Zagrans Law Firm LLC
Columbus, OH
Melvyn Zarr University of Maine School of Law
Portland, ME
Benjamin C. Zipursky Fordham University School of Law
New York, NY