Restatement of the Law,

Constitutional Torts

This Restatement will examine the law of individual rights to sue government employees and others “acting under color of state law” under 42 U.S.C. § 1983 and Bivens actions. It will also cover restrictions on § 1983 actions imposed by the Prison Litigation Reform Act and the overlapping law of federal habeas corpus.
  • Status
  • Participants

The Council approved the initiation of this project in October 2022. ALI members may join the Members Consultative Group.

Reporters
John Calvin Jeffries, Jr. University of Virginia School of Law
Charlottesville, VA
Pamela S. Karlan Stanford Law School
Stanford, CA
Associate Reporters
Alan K. Chen University of Denver, Sturm College of Law
Denver, CO
Margaret Z. Johns University of California, Davis
Davis, CA
James E. Pfander Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law
Chicago, IL
Fred O. Smith, Jr. Emory University School of Law
Atlanta, GA
Michael Wells University of Georgia School of Law
Athens, GA
Advisers
Jack Beermann Boston University School of Law
Boston, MA
Wendy Beetlestone U.S. District Court, Eastern District of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA
Anya Bidwell Institute for Justice
Arlington, VA
Michael G. Collins University of Virginia School of Law
Charlottesville, VA
Gonzalo P. Curiel U.S. District Court, Southern District of California
San Diego, CA
John Gleeson Debevoise & Plimpton LLP
New York, NY
Yvonne Gonzalez Rogers U.S. District Court, Northern District of California
Oakland, CA
Toby Jay Heytens United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit
Richmond, VA
Mark R. Hornak U.S. District Court, Western District of Pennsylvania
Pittsburgh, PA
Adalberto J. Jordan U.S. Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit
Miami, FL
Richard B. Katskee Duke University School of Law
Durham, NC
Virginia M. Kendall U.S. District Court, Northern District of Illinois
Chicago, IL
Seth F. Kreimer University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School
Philadelphia, PA
Alexandra D. Lahav Cornell Law School
Ithaca, NY
Jennifer Laurin University of Texas School of Law
Austin, TX
Leah M. Litman University of Michigan Law School
Ann Arbor, MI
John G. Malcolm The Heritage Foundation
Washington, DC
Mary Massaron Plunkett Cooney, P.C.
Bloomfield Hills, MI
Stephen R. McAllister University of Kansas School of Law
Lawrence, KS
Scott Michelman American Civil Liberties Union
New York, NY
Jane Elinor Notz Office of the Illinois Attorney General
Chicago, IL
Eugene P. Ramirez Manning Kass
Los Angeles, CA
Alexander A. Reinert Yeshiva University, Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law
New York, NY
David Rudovsky Kairys, Rudovsky, Messing, Feinberg & Lin LLP
Philadelphia, PA
Joanna C. Schwartz University of California, Los Angeles School of Law
Los Angeles, CA
Michael H. Simon United States District Court for the District of Oregon
Portland, OR
Gregory Charles Sisk University of St. Thomas School of Law
Minneapolis, MN
Amy Totenberg U.S. District Court, Northern District of Georgia
Atlanta, GA
Howard M. Wasserman Florida International University College of Law
Miami, FL
Members Consultative Group
Kenneth S. Abraham University of Virginia School of Law
Charlottesville, VA
James M. Anderson RAND Corporation
Pittsburgh, PA
Christopher Edward Appel Shook, Hardy & Bacon LLP
Washington, DC
David J. Aronofsky The University of Montana School of Law (Retired)
Missoula, MT
Ronald G. Aronovsky Southwestern Law School
Los Angeles, CA
Donald B. Ayer Mc Lean, VA
Nannette A. Baker U.S. District Court, Eastern District of Missouri
Saint Louis, MO
William W. Barrett Williams Barrett & Wilkowski, LLP
Greenwood, IN
William Baude University of Chicago Law School
Chicago, IL
Michael M. Baylson U.S. District Court, Eastern District of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA
Michael M. Berger Manatt, Phelps & Phillips, LLP
Los Angeles, CA
Mark I. Bernstein Philadelphia, PA
Ashutosh A. Bhagwat University of California, Davis School of Law
Davis, CA
Jeff J. Bowen Lindemann Miller Bowen LLP
Madison, WI
Thomas H. Boyd Winthrop & Weinstine, PA
Minneapolis, MN
Peter Bray U.S. District Court, Southern District of Texas
Houston, TX
Jacquelyn L. Bridgeman University of Wyoming College of Law
Laramie, WY
Jean-Jacques Cabou Perkins Coie LLP
Phoenix, AZ
Elissa F. Cadish Supreme Court of Nevada
Carson City, NV
Edmond E. Chang U.S. District Court, Northern District of Illinois
Chicago, IL
Alan K. Chen University of Denver, Sturm College of Law
Denver, CO
Yee Wah Chin Ingram Yuzek Gainen Carroll & Bertolotti, LLP
New York, NY
Laurence Paul Claus University of San Diego School of Law
San Diego, CA
Zachary D. Clopton Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law
Chicago, IL
Michael G. Colantuono Colantuono, Highsmith & Whatley, PC
Grass Valley, CA
Kevin L. Cole University of San Diego School of Law
San Diego, CA
George W. Conk Fordham University School of Law
New York, NY
Kelsi B. Corkran Institute for Constitutional Advocacy and Protection, Georgetown Law
Washington, DC
Michelle Williams Court Superior Court of California, County of Los Angeles
Los Angeles, CA
Andrew Manuel Crespo Harvard Law School
Cambridge, MA
Michael Crommelin Melbourne Law School
Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Thomas L. Cubbage, III The Center for American and International Law
Plano, TX
Gonzalo P. Curiel U.S. District Court, Southern District of California
San Diego, CA
Rueben C. Cásarez Wells Fargo & Co. (Retired)
Evergreen, CO
Anuj C. Desai University of Wisconsin Law School
Madison, WI
Donald L. Doernberg Pace University, Elisabeth Haub School of Law (Retired)
Penn Valley, CA
James B. Dolan, Jr. Bager, Dolan, Parker & Cohen
Boston, MA
Joshua A. Douglas University of Kentucky, J. David Rosenberg College of Law
Lexington, KY
Kevin J. Doyle U.S. District Court, District of Vermont
Burlington, VT
Avlana K. Eisenberg Boston College Law School
Newton Center, MA
Ronald Eisenberg Pennsylvania Attorney General's Office
Philadelphia, PA
Anne S. Emanuel Georgia State University College of Law (Retired)
Atlanta, GA
Katie R. Eyer Rutgers Law School
Camden, NJ
Richard G. Feder Philadelphia, PA
Gary Feinerman Latham & Watkins LLP
Chicago, IL
Barry Friedman New York University School of Law
New York, NY
Frederick Mark Gedicks Brigham Young University, J. Reuben Clark Law School
Provo, UT
Benjamin D. Geffen Public Interest Law Center
Philadelphia, PA
Steven S. Gensler University of Oklahoma College of Law
Norman, OK
Joseph M. Getty Supreme Court of Maryland
Annapolis, MD
Llewellyn Joseph Gibbons University of Toledo College of Law
Toledo, OH
Christine Chambers Goodman Pepperdine University, Caruso School of Law
Malibu, CA
Paul A. Gowder, Jr. Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law
Chicago, IL
Charles E. Griffin Butler Snow LLP
Ridgeland, MS
Simona Grossi Loyola Law School, Los Angeles
Los Angeles, CA
David W. Gruning Loyola University New Orleans College of Law
Abita Springs, LA
Michael A. Harring Chicago, IL
Stephen E. Henderson University of Oklahoma College of Law
Norman, OK
Eric L. Hirschhorn Winston & Strawn LLP
Washington, DC
LaShonda A. Hunt U.S. District Court, Northern District of Illinois
Chicago, IL
Aziz Zahirul Huq University of Chicago Law School
Chicago, IL
Daniel G. Jarcho Alston & Bird LLP
Washington, DC
Kirk C. Jenkins Half Moon Bay, CA
Richard Gibbs Johnson RGJ LLC
Cleveland, OH
Robb Jones United Educators (Retired)
Ashburn, VA
Adalberto J. Jordan U.S. Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit
Miami, FL
Anil Kalhan Drexel University, Thomas R. Kline School of Law
Philadelphia, PA
Richard B. Katskee Duke University School of Law
Durham, NC
D. Arthur Kelsey Supreme Court of Virginia
Richmond, VA
Orin S. Kerr University of California, Berkeley School of Law
Berkeley, CA
Steve Kim U.S. District Court, Central District of California
Los Angeles, CA
Sarah M. Konsky University of Chicago Law School
Chicago, IL
Peter B Kutner University of Oklahoma College of Law
Norman, OK
Alexandra D. Lahav Cornell Law School
Ithaca, NY
Douglas Laycock University of Virginia School of Law (Retired)
Charlottesville, VA
Thomas S. Leatherbury Thomas S. Leatherbury Law, PLLC
Dallas, TX
Evan Tsen Lee University of California College of the Law, San Francisco
San Francisco, CA
Thomas H. Lee Fordham University School of Law
New York, NY
Nancy Leong University of Denver, Sturm College of Law
Denver, CO
George W. Liebmann Liebmann & Shively, P.A.
Baltimore, MD
Lewis J. Liman U.S. District Court, Southern District of New York
New York, NY
Susan M. Lin Kairys, Rudovsky, Messing, Feinberg & Lin LLP
Philadelphia, PA
Leah M. Litman University of Michigan Law School
Ann Arbor, MI
Mark J. Loewenstein University of Colorado Law School
Boulder, CO
Andrés W. López The Law Offices of Andrés W. López P.S.C.
San Juan, PR
Patrick A. Malone Patrick Malone & Associates, PC
Washington, DC
Suzette Malveaux University of Colorado Law School
Boulder, CO
Jeffrey A. Mandell Stafford Rosenbaum LLP
Madison, WI
Michael J. Mannheimer Northern Kentucky University, Chase College of Law
Cincinnati, OH
C. Scott Maravilla U.S. Federal Aviation Administration
Washington, DC
Araceli Martínez-Olguín U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California
San Francisco, CA
Mary Massaron Plunkett Cooney, P.C.
Bloomfield Hills, MI
Steven L. Mayer Arnold & Porter
San Francisco, CA
James T. McCartt Triangle Peak Partners LP
Knoxville, TN
Marcia L. McCormick St. Louis University School of Law
Saint Louis, MO
James C. McKay, Jr. Office of the Attorney General for the District of Columbia
Washington, DC
Thomas Butler Merritt Littleton, NH
Paul Mogin Williams & Connolly LLP
Washington, DC
Valerie M. Nannery American Constitution Society
Washington, DC
Jonathan R. Nash Emory University School of Law
Atlanta, GA
Robert G. Newman Fulbright & Jaworski LLP (Retired)
San Antonio, TX
Joel W. Nomkin Perkins Coie LLP
Phoenix, AZ
James M. Oleske, Jr. Lewis & Clark Law School
Portland, OR
Sean Olivas Jennings Haug Keleher McLeod LLP
Albuquerque, NM
Eric R. Olson Olson Grimsley Kawanabe Hinchcliff & Murray LLC
Denver, CO
Jeffrey A. Parness Northern Illinois University College of Law
DeKalb, IL
John T. Parry Lewis & Clark Law School
Portland, OR
Robert S. Peck Center for Constitutional Litigation, PC
Washington, DC
Mary Kelly Persyn Persyn Law & Policy
San Francisco, CA
Stuart A. Raphael Court of Appeals of Virginia
Richmond, VA
Connor N. Raso Public Company Accounting Oversight Board
Washington, DC
Gerald S. Reamey St. Mary's University School of Law
San Antonio, TX
Henry R. Reeve Denver District Attorney's Office (Retired)
Denver, CO
Sarah E. Ricks Rutgers Law School
Camden, NJ
Augustin Rivera, Jr. Del Mar Community College District
Corpus Christi, TX
Lauren K. Robel Indiana University, Maurer School of Law
Falmouth, MA
Bertrall L. Ross University of Virginia School of Law
Charlottesville, VA
Thomas D. Rowe, Jr. Duke University School of Law
Marina del Rey, CA
David Rudovsky Kairys, Rudovsky, Messing, Feinberg & Lin LLP
Philadelphia, PA
Lynn Hecht Schafran Legal Momentum
New York, NY
Mary M. Schroeder U.S. Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit
Phoenix, AZ
Michael Schwarz Santa Fe, NM
Matthew R. Segal American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)
Boston, MA
Peter M. Shane New York University School of Law
New York, NY
Allen E. Shoenberger Loyola University Chicago School of Law
Chicago, IL
Stuart H. Singer Boies Schiller Flexner LLP
Fort Lauderdale, FL
Matthew D. Slater Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton LLP
Washington, DC
Duston J. Slinkard U.S. Attorney's Office, District of Kansas
Topeka, KS
David L. Sloss Santa Clara University School of Law
Santa Clara, CA
Fred O. Smith, Jr. Emory University School of Law
Atlanta, GA
Jonathan M. Smith Washington Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights and Urban Affairs
Washington, DC
Steven R. Smith California Western School of Law
San Diego, CA
Carl A. Solano Superior Court of Pennsylvania (Retired)
Philadelphia, PA
Arthur B. Spitzer American Civil Liberties Union of the District of Columbia
Washington, DC
Victor P. Stabile Superior Court of Pennsylvania
Harrisburg, PA
Adam N. Steinman University of Alabama School of Law
Tuscaloosa, AL
Paul David Stern U.S. Department of the Interior
Washington, DC
H. Mark Stichel RKW Law Group
Baltimore, MD
Catherine T. Struve University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School
Philadelphia, PA
Guy Miller Struve Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP (Retired)
New York, NY
Barry Sullivan Loyola University Chicago School of Law
Chicago, IL
Ria Tabacco Mar American Civil Liberties Union
New York, NY
David K. Thomson New Mexico Supreme Court
Santa Fe, NM
Jay Tidmarsh Notre Dame Law School
Notre Dame, IN
Daniel Patrick Tokaji University of Wisconsin Law School
Madison, WI
Ethan V. Torrey Supreme Court of the United States
Washington, DC
Daniel Mack Traynor U.S. District Court, District of North Dakota
Bismarck, ND
Robert L. Tsai Boston University School of Law
Boston, MA
Paul J. Van de Graaf U.S. Attorney's Office, District of Vermont
Burlington, VT
Caroline S. Van Zile Office of the Attorney General for the District of Columbia
Washington, DC
Louis J. Virelli, III Stetson University College of Law
Saint Petersburg, FL
John L. Warden Sullivan & Cromwell LLP
New York, NY
Howard M. Wasserman Florida International University College of Law
Miami, FL
David G. Webbert Johnson Webbert, LLP
Topsham, ME
Douglas P. Woodlock U.S. District Court, District of Massachusetts
Boston, MA
Eric H. Zagrans Zagrans Law Firm LLC
Columbus, OH
Melvyn Zarr University of Maine School of Law
Portland, ME
Benjamin C. Zipursky Fordham University School of Law
New York, NY